Pretty much all of them have civilian equivalents. What discipline you go into (SIGINT, HUMINT, IMINT, etc) will determine where you are best qualified to work, be it as a civilian contractor (booz-allen-hamilton, CACI, General Dynamics, etc) or a federal government employee (FBI, CIA, NSA, NGA, etc).
I prefer the enlisted side personally. Officers tend to get non-MOS jobs more frequently (such as company commander, Bn Adjutant, etc). NCOs generally have additional duties to occupy their time (squad leader, UPL, platoon sergeant, key control NCO, shop NCOIC, etc). The best route, if you want to be an in-depth intelligence professional, largely ignoring the Army as a whole (aside from mandatory requirements like APFT, weapon quals, etc), is to go MI Technical Warrant. As far as I know, all enlisted MI MOS's have warrant equivalents.
But to do that, you'll have to start out enlisted.